收获期和收割留茬高度对高羊茅种子产量和质量的影响
投稿时间:2019-08-18    点此下载全文
引用本文:龚振德,李俊,袁晓君,李彩霞,陈祖春,吴月琴,何亚丽.收获期和收割留茬高度对高羊茅种子产量和质量的影响[J].《上海交通大学学报》(农业科学版),2019,(5):15-21
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作者单位E-mail
龚振德 上海市花卉良种试验场,上海 201615 gongzhende@shseed.com 
李俊 上海市农业科学院 农业科技信息研究所,上海 201403  
袁晓君 上海大学 生命科学学院/上海市能源作物育种及应用重点实验室,上海 200444  
李彩霞 中经网数据有限公司,北京 100032
上海交通大学 农业与生物学院,上海 200240 
 
陈祖春 上海市花卉良种试验场,上海 201615  
吴月琴 上海市花卉良种试验场,上海 201615  
何亚丽 上海交通大学 农业与生物学院,上海 200240  
基金项目:上海市农委科技兴农重点攻关项目[沪农科攻字(2013)第1-1号]
中文摘要:于2016年在上海交通大学闵行校区高羊茅(Festuca arundinacea)种子生产田实施了4个收获期和2个收割高度的两因素随机完全区组试验,以研究收获期和收割留茬高度对种子产量和质量的影响。试验结果表明:收获期从花后15 d至花后36 d,有籽粒脱落的穗子和有籽粒脱落的小穗的百分率和千粒重逐渐提高,而每小穗粒数逐渐下降,致使种子产量先增加后降低;在4个收获期处理中,最高籽粒产量出现在第2期,即花后22 d,其显著高于第1期(花后15 d)和第4期(花后36 d)的种子产量,而与第3期(花后29 d)收获的种子产量间没有显著差异;第2期收获的种子千粒重、种子发芽率和种子萌发苗株高与第3、4期收获的优质种子间没有显著差异;籽粒产量和质量在留茬高度16 cm(收割全株)和留茬高度58 cm(割穗)间差异不显著,该效应不随收获期的不同而异。据此推断:上海地区高产优质高羊茅种子的适宜收获期为首批开花穗的花后22~29 d,于全田尚有12%的嫩穗和59%的小穗顶部有1~3粒籽粒脱落时开始尽快收获;可以根据不同收获方式的需要在高于地面16 cm至穗颈节间(割穗留茬高度)范围内灵活确定植株收割高度。
中文关键词:高羊茅  种子生产  收获期  收割留茬高度
 
Effects of harvesting time and swathing stubble height on seed yield and quality in tall fescue
Abstract:In order to study the response of seed yield and quality to seed harvesting time and swathing stubble height,a two-factor randomized complete block experiment with four harvest dates and two swathing heights was conducted in the seed production field of tall fescue(Festuca arundinacea) in Minhang campus of Shanghai Jiaotong University in 2016.Results from this research showed that,while the percentages of seedheadand spikelet with shattered grains and 1000-grain weight were getting higher,the number of grains per spikelet was getting lower,which resulted in the increase first and then decrease of the seed yield,as harvesting date prolonged from 15 to 36 d after anthesis.Of the four harvesting-date treatments,seed yield was the highest for the 2nd harvesting treatment,22 d after anthesis,which was significantly higher than those harvested for the 1st(22 d after anthesis) and 4th(36 d after anthesis) harvest time treatment,and similar to those for the 3rd,29 d after anthesis,harvesting treatment.However,1000-seed weight,seed germination rate and seedling height of the 2nd harvesting time were not significantly lower than those of high quality seeds harvested for the 3rd and 4th time.Moreover,no significant difference of seed yield and seed quality was observed between two treatments of swathing stubble height,stubble height 16 cm(swathing whole plant) and stubble height 58 cm(swathing seedhead),which did not vary with the harvesting times.Theresults suggested that,for the sake of high-yield and high-quality seeds of tall fescue in Shanghai,the appropriate seed harvesting time was between 22 and 29 d after anthesis,beginning when about 12% of the seedheads are immature and 59% of spikelet with 1-3 grains shattered and finishing the harvest as soon as possible within one week;the swathing stubble height could be determined flexibly from 16 cm above the ground to neck-panicle node(stubble height for swathing seedhead)according to the requirements of different harvesting methods.
keywords:tall fescue  seed production  harvest time  stubble height of swathing
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